Bezukladnikov Vasilij Alexandrovich :
The methods of increase of economy of engines of internal combustion
Bezukladnikov Vasilij Alexandrovich :
From the moment of the invention more hundred of years ago of engine of internal combustion were undertaken numerous attempts of perfection his with use of production process of steam from water. Especially actively all belligerent parties applied the engines with injection of water during the Second World War when the prices for oil were extremely high. But next, such engines have gone out of use owing to the technological complexity and unreliability, as especially, then nobody still seriously did not care of ecology. Any engine of internal combustion not only in vain throws out the most part (70 - 80 %) of thermal energy received in work, moreover he even collapses, if will lose an opportunity, through system of cooling to give water his heat. On the other hand, receiving it warmly water, converted up to the steam in process of the boiling or volatilization, at usual atmospheric pressure increases itself in the volume in 1700 times. Thus obtained the steam can help one´s pressure of working gas to actuate pistons or turbines of thermal engines and to give an essential increment of a power, the maximal twisting moment and efficiency of these motors. There are three basic variants of use of injection of water on engine of internal combustion:
1. From contact of water with hot exhaust gases, there is an occurrence of the steam, which rotates the small turbine, which then helps the basic engine. About the development of a similar power-plant for the cars recently (in November 2005) has declared by the company BMW -
2. On many a sports cars, using a turbo pumping, for cooling an air compressed by compressor, the special device sprays the water in this air, with which together the water enters in cylinders, where the water becomes a steam. Here it is necessary to notice, that any gas (it concerns both air and steam) from downturn of the temperature on one-degree give decreases approximately on 1/270 a part from the volume at atmospheric pressure. And, on the contrary, at compression, especially quick, the temperature of gas itself increases. It is easy to be convinced of it, if pumping the gas chamber of a wheel of a bicycle from manual pump which thus noticeably heats up, or if very strongly strike to shove a dense stopper into a test tube with cotton, which flashes up from the heating, caused by strong compression of air. For reduction of expenses of energy for introduction in cylinders of a lot of compressed air, this air is cooled by dispersion in his else by cold water, which has very big thermal capacity. This dispersion is carried out or before passage of compressed air through intercooler (an additional cooling radiator), or after his, but, in any case, even the smallest droplets of hot water should turn into steam only inside of the cylinder, differently the profit from the steam becomes insignificant. Moreover, infringement of stoichiometric (optimal) parities of quantity of fuel and air at including water vapors, can lead to a stop of the engine.
3. The water, previously up heated, is sprayed directly in cylinders of injection engines. From contact with the burning fuel heated by the piston and the cylinder, the water up boils. Then extending itself the steam helps working gases to set pistons in motion. Here injection of water actually replaces with itself a turbo forced aspiration. In this case will not be broken a stoichiometric parity of quantity of fuel and air extremely compressed by the compressor, which by very much high pressure of air complicates process of formation of electric spark. For ecology the steam, extending itself in the cylinder, is much more safe, than the compressed air comprising up to 80 % of nitrogen from which at a heat and a pressure, arise pernicious for the nature the chemical compound with superfluous oxygen. Also excess oxygen in strongly compressed air leads to undesirable burnout of cylinders, buckets, piston rings, valves and to oxidation of electric contacts of candles. Some motorists assure, what even after many years of operation by engines of internal combustion with injection of water, an interior of its cylinders look as new. More effective direct cooling (and greasing) by water of the hot and intensively rubbing surfaces of the cylinder prolongs a life of all the motor. Besides an increase of power and fuel economy on 15 - 20 %, the injection of water also essentially improves cooling itself of the motor as cylinders are cooled by water not so much from outside, how many from within. Unfortunately, owing to very complex adjustment, insufficient reliability and high cost, motors with injection of water have received prevalence only on aircrafts, on sport cars and on amateur auto-homemade products (in the latter case not always they justify itself). But achievements of a modern science and technique, especially of the electronics, allow hoping for much efficiency of motors with injection of water. Just electronics can determine the exact doses of injection into cylinders of water and also of her a preliminary heating up from external walls of cylinder in a water jacket and from an exhaust nozzle with the muffler, by catalyst converter and the soot filter, so as to in the moment of injection, the temperature of water, was as much as possible approached to its boiling point which in the compressed gas environment inevitably increases.
Pressure, p (Atm.) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 + x<
Boiling temperature of water, t (grade/C*) - 100 119 132 141 150 157 163 168 173 178 182 + 430
Certainly, when into cylinders the pressure reaches more than 500 atmospheres, the boiling temperature of water will be considerably above, but already at temperature above ~ 430 C* all volume of water becomes gaseous irrespective of further the raises up of pressure. Preliminary heating up of water is necessary for intensification of process of steam exhalation. Than more the waters will boil in cylinders of acting engine of internal combustion, so much be more saved the fuel and the nature on our Planet. At superfluous heating the cylinder the microprocessor can increase submission in his the waters, but lessen the delivery of fuel in his exactly so that from this replacement, at existing loading, the speed of rotation of the engine has remained same what was established by the driver. In an ideal (at good regulation), engine with injection of water can already do without the bulky radiator worsening aerodynamic resistance of quickly moving car, and also without the ventilator, which provide the refrigerating of engine by air outside. In this case the water pump, besides reliability should, irrespective from a mode of behavior of engine of internal combustion, quickly and precisely to change the productivity and pressure of water, sent from he. It is desirable a pressure of water in a cooling water jacket adapt by electronics to each timing period of work of the engine as the cylinders (especially from alloys of light metals) from heat become soft and under greater pressure are deformed to forming the undesirable spacings between pistons and cylinders, or to the inadmissible convex camber-s interfering in movement of pistons. Water should be well cleared, otherwise the scum will quickly cork thin spray jets. So as in very short a time of one cycle of the engine (1/250 share of second) water has had time to boil completely else in the cylinder, her spray must be entering by very small droplets through set of very fine bores (diameter about 0,1 mm), under greater pressure. However acceptably, so as any part of water turned into steam already after output of water from the cylinder with the hot exhausted gases in an outlet pipe. Then it will be possible to lower temperature and noise of the gases thrown out by cars, and increased (from the boiling or of the super-heating of steam) their volume will allow effectively rotating the electric turbine established inside of the same tube. Also as and of the water, it is necessary to heat up and the fuel, before as his inject into cylinders of the engine. Then the warmed up fuel becomes less viscous, passes through very narrow passes of spray jets is easier, is more thin is sprayed, mixes up with air is better, is ignited and is fuller, burns down, so, except for fuel economy, allows to depress an electric voltage on spark plugs and to prolong term of their work. It´s known, that at strong colds, the minus of 90 degrees on Celsius (at station the East in Antarctica), even the aviation gasoline does not burn and practically does not evaporate. The air, participating in burning, previously must not warm up but, on the contrary, it is desirable to cool, as it - gas, and unlike liquids and solids, at heating very strongly increases (here prematurely) own volume. Injected water and the steam, formed from it, can create the necessary temperature, pressure, speed and even of a form of distribution of a flame in the cylinder, what will allow to prevent the explosive phenomena (detonation), so as without harm for the engine, to create even greater pressure of the mixture of fuel with the air or (and) to use cheaper low-octane gasoline. For example, at high moisture of air (while is rainy weather) engine of internal combustion more softly work, more easily, at least, on external feeling. In winter the water needs to be warmed up by engine and stored in a thermos or in a tank from heat-insulating polymers or ceramics, or to dilute it by alcohol.
Bezukladnikov Vasilij Alexandrovich.
The City of Taganrog, Rostov region, Russia.